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Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Turkish Education


1. PRINCIPLES REGULATING THE EDUCATION SYSTEM
The Turkish education system is organized on the basis of;
- Constitution of the Turkish Republic
- Laws Regulating Education and Instruction
- Government Programs
- Development Plans
- National Education Councils
Based on these factors, education principles have been defined as follows;
- Education shall be national,
- Education shall be Republican,
- Education shall be secular,
- Education shall have a scientific foundation,
- Education shall incorporate generality and equality,
- Education shall be functional and modern.
Education system has democratic, modern, scientific secular and coeducational characteristics. The purpose of the Turkish Education System is to increase the welfare and happiness of the Turkish citizens and Turkish society, to support and facilitate economic, social and cultural development in national unity and integration and to make the Turkish nation a constructive, creative and distinguished partner in modern civilization.


1.1. ATATÜ;RK'S OPINIONS ABOUT EDUCATION
Today, the most important and the most productive duty of all of us is the national education affairs. We have to be absolutely successful in this area and we shall. This is the real salvation of a nation.
We have to improve our country in the areas of science, culture and prosperity, to develop the already productive abilities of our nation and to give the coming generations a robust, unchangeable and positive character.
Ladies, gentlemen. The method to be applied in education and instruction is to make knowledge a practical and useful tool that ensures success in material life rather than an accessory, a tool of administration, or a modern form of pleasure.
Education must be free from all superstitions and foreign thoughts, be of high quality and have national values and a patriotic understanding.
National education must be secular and based on a single school principle. Our objective in education is to raise citizens who shall increase the civil and social values and improve the economic power of the society.

1.2. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE TURKISH REPUBLIC
Before Equality the Law 
Article 10- "Everyone is equal before the laws without any discrimination according to language, race, color, gender, political views, philosophical beliefs, religion, sect or similar reasons.
No person, family, group or class may have privileges."
Freedom of Religion and Conscience
Article 24- ".... Teaching of religion and ethics is performed under the control of the government. Religion and ethics are among the compulsory courses taught in the primary and secondary education institutions. Any other teaching of religion depends on a person's free will and on the legal custodian's wishes in the case of small children...."
Right and Duty to be Educated
Article 42- ... The scope of the right to learn is defined and regulated by laws.
Education and instruction are performed under the control of the government, in line with Atatürk's principles and revolution, and based on the essentials of modern science and education. Places of education and instruction operating contrary to these principles may not be opened.
Freedom of learning does not exempt one from his/her commitments to the Constitution.
Primary education is compulsory for all citizens, boys or girls, and is free of charge in public schools.
Principles regulating the private primary and secondary schools are defined by laws in line with the level that should be reached by the public schools.
The Government provides scholarships and other means to support the education of successful students coming from materially deprived families. The Government also takes measures to help those in need of special education to become useful members of society.
Education and instruction institutions provide activities related only to education, instruction, research and investigation. These activities may not be hindered under any circumstances.
No language other than Turkish may be taught as mother tongue to Turkish citizens in education and instruction institutions. The foreign languages to be taught in such institutions and the principles governing the schools where education is held in the foreign language are defined by laws. Provisions of international agreements are reserved.

Turkish citizens working in foreign countries
Article 62- The Government takes measures to ensure family unity of the Turkish citizens working in foreign countries, to educate their children, to meet their cultural needs and to provide social security, to protect their link to the motherland and to facilitate their coming back.

Higher education institutions 
Article 130- Universities consisting of various departments, having public legal entity and scientific autonomy are established by the government by means of laws, in a system based on principles of modern education and instruction, in order to provide education at several levels after secondary education, to perform scientific research, publication and consulting, to serve the country and humanity, with the purpose of raising manpower to meet the needs of the country.
1.3. BASIC LAW OF NATIONAL EDUCATION NO 1739 
The Basic Law of National Education, which was put into effect in 1793 and was subjected to amendments in purpose and in principles with the Law no 2842 dated 18.06.1989, includes the following;
a. General and specific goals of the Turkish National Education System
b. Basic principles
c. General structure of the education system, every type of institutions and organizations at every level
d. The teaching profession
e. School buildings
f. Education tools and equipment
g. Duties and responsibilities related to education and teaching.
As per this Law;
The general purpose of the Turkish National Education is to raise all Turkish citizens;
(1) as individuals who are committed to Atatürk's principles, the revolution and the Atatürk Nationalism defined in the Constitution, who assimilate, protect, develop the national, human, moral and cultural values of the Turkish nation, who love and continuously try to raise their family, country and nation, who are aware of their duties and responsibilities towards the Turkish Republic, a democratic, secular and social state of law based on human rights and the basic principles defined at the beginning of the Constitution and for whom these duties have become a habit;
(2) as individuals who have a balanced and healthy personality and character, who are developed in terms of body, mind, moral, spirit and emotions, free and with scientific thinking abilities and a wide worldview, who respect human rights, who value personality and enterprise, who are responsible towards society, who are constructive, creative and productive.
(3) in line with their own interests and abilities, to prepare them for life by helping them to acquire the required knowledge, skills, behavior and cooperative working habits, and to ensure they have a profession which will make them happy and contribute to the happiness of society.
Thus, the aim is both to increase the welfare and happiness of the Turkish citizens and Turkish society, and to support and facilitate economic, social and cultural development in national unity and integration, and finally to make the Turkish nation a constructive, creative and distinguished partner in modern civilization.


1.4. EDUCATION IN THE 57TH GOVERNMENT PROGRAM


Children with extraordinary intelligence and abilities shall be identified earlier and given special interest. Efforts shall be made to expand Pre-Primary education opportunities to all children.
The number of basic education institutions for retarded children who cannot take advantage of coeducation shall be increased.
In order to make retarded adolescents productive and skilful, special emphasis shall be put on expanding vocational-technical education opportunities to include them.
Vocational and technical education shall be encouraged. Necessary arrangements shall be made for the vocational-technical education of students at high school level to attend university programs in their own areas.
In order to completely eliminate the university exams, efforts shall be made, including increasing the number of instructors. In that sense, functional relations shall be established between open higher education and formal universities in order to expand modern information and education technologies and to maximize the quality of open education.
The Council of Higher Education shall become the coordinating organization between universities, and universities shall be given a modern autonomous structure, and arrangements will be made for the students to be represented in the university administration.
A fair pricing system shall be established in private schools.


1.5. TURKEY'S NATIONAL PROGRAM RELATED TO THE UNDERTAKING
OF ATTAINING ADAPTATION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION
1.5.1. TRAINING, INTERNSHIP AND YOUTH 
Amendments and innovations to be made in the Turkish legislation
In order to transfer authority and responsibility to the provincial organization of the Ministry of National Education, modification must be made in the Law of Organization of the Ministry of National Education no 3797.
If, after the required infrastructure is established, the period of compulsory education is increased to 9-12, which is the average of EU countries, arrangements must be made in the Apprenticeship and

Vocational Education Law no 3308 in order to reinforce the relation between vocational and technical education and industry, within the scope of extension of periods and areas of usage of the financial provisions in the Basic Law of National Education no 1739 and the Eight Years of Compulsory Primary Education Law no. 4306.
A draft "Law of National Vocational Standards" that regulates the vocational standards and proposes establishment of a Vocational Standards Institution has been prepared by the Ministry of Labor and Social Insurance Turkish Employment Office and submitted to the Prime Ministry.
In relation to higher education, the arrangements and the structural changes planned by the Higher Education Council shall be realized in line with the objectives in the Bologna Declaration.
In Short-term
Efforts shall be finalized and implementation shall begin of the Law of Establishment and Duties of the National Agency in charge of the Youth and Education Programs of the EU.
With the Vocational and Technical Education Modernization Project supported by the EU, the Basic Education Project supported by the World Bank, Vocational and Technical Education Reinforcement Projects approved by the EU and the Socrates, Leonardo and Youth for Europe programs, Turkey is planning to reach the EU standards in the education area as soon as possible.
From November 2001 on, our country shall be actively participating in the SOCRATES program, which is one of the education programs implemented by the EU. In that sense, the Diploma Supplement implementation, which is to be given by the EU to students on graduation, shall be started in June 2001 in all our higher education institutions.
In the coming years, efforts and arrangements (establishment of Vocational and Technical Education Regions) shall continue in order to solve the problem of qualified teachers and to meet the physical infrastructure and equipment needs of the existing vocational higher education schools.
Arrangements shall be made for adult training and in-service training.
In Medium-Term
In order to reflect the in-service reived by teachers to their personnel rights and to employ contracted teachers in areas of requirement, the related legislation and practices of the EU countries shall be reviewed and the necessary legal and institutional arrangements shall be made.
The modifications to the Basic Law of National Education no. 1739 in relation to vocational and technical education shall be completed by the Ministry of National Education.
Studies shall be started in order to adapt the manpower of the countries, which are included in the Council Decision no 363D0266 put into effect in 1963 to implement a common vocational education policy, to the changes in general economic circumstances and production technologies, to create a high employment capacity and
to implement the ten basic principles in our country to facilitate the circulation of workers.
Efforts to modify the legislation are made by the "Legislation Commission" established as part of the "Council Monitoring Committee" which was formed after the 3rd Council of Tradesmen and Craftsmen held in 1998 and coordinated by the Ministry of National Education, and studies in relation to compliance to the EU adaptation shall be completed.
Modifications to the Law of Organization of the Ministry of Education no 3797 shall be made in order to transfer authority and responsibility to the provincial organization of the ministry.
Administrative Capacity for the Implementation of Adaptation
Efforts shall be finalized and implementation shall begin concerning the Law of Establishment and Duties of the National Agency responsible for the Youth and Education Programs of the EU. Also, it is essential for the sake of education to establish a Vocational Standards Institution in order to ensure mutual recognition of the vocational education certificates and to establish a standard of vocational education.
1.5.2. SOCIAL POLICY AND EMPLOYMENT 
In the Labor Law no 1475 (article 49), it has been proposed that the annual paid vacation of workers at 18 or below may not be less than 28 days. In the Apprenticeship and Vocational Education Law no. 3308 that regulates the vacation and social insurance rights of contracted apprentices, these apprentices have been awarded the right to take at least a one-month paid vacation in the holiday period.
Since the period of compulsory education has been increased to eight years upon modification of the Basic Education Law accepted in 1997, Law no. 3308 has been amended so that the minimum age to attend the apprenticeship-training center is increased to 14.
1.5.3. EMPLOYMENT 
Vocational Standards, Examination and Certification System
A Vocational Standards Commission has been established and is working as part of the project within İş-Kur (Employment Institution). This commission has been trying to define vocational standards, and to develop examination and certification systems, as well as to restructure the existing services for institutionalization.
Amendments and innovations to the Turkish legislation Defining vocational standards, developing examination and certification systems and making legal arrangements.
In Medium-Term
Legal arrangements in relation to Vocational Standards, Examination and Certification Institution.
1.5.4. EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND 
Current status of the Turkish legislation
Apprenticeship and Vocational Education Law no 3308.
2. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM 
2.1. FORMAL EDUCATION 
Formal education is the regular education of individuals in a certain age group and given in schools at the same level with programs prepared for definite purposes.
Formal education includes Pre-Primary education, primary education, secondary education and higher education institutions.
2.1.1. Pre-Primary education
Pre-Primary education includes the optional education of children between 36-72 month who are under the age of compulsory primary education. Pre-Primary education institutions, independent nurseries are opened as nursery classes and practical classes within formal and non-formal education institutions with suitable physical capacity.
The purpose of Pre-Primary education is to ensure physical, mental and sensory development of children and the acquisition of good habits, to prepare children for primary education, to create a common atmosphere of growth for those living in inconvenient circumstances and to ensure that Turkish is spoken correct and well.

FORMAL EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS NON-FORMAL EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
PRE-PRİMARY EDUCATION
" Nurseries
" Kindergarten
" Practical classes
" Nurseries within private Turkish, Foreign, Minority, International schools
" Other institutions (Society for the Protection of Children, and other institutions and organizations opened as per article 191 of Law no 657) 
PRIMARY EDUCATION
" Primary schools
" Regional Boarding Primary Schools
" Boarding Primary Education School
" Primary schools for the Hearing-Impaired
" Primary schools for the Visually-Impaired
" Primary schools for the Orthopedically Disabled
" Primary schools for the Mentally Retarded
" Private Turkish, Foreign, Minority, International Primary schools
 
SECONDARY EDUCATION
General Secondary Education
" Secondary schools
" Science schools
" Anatolian schools
" Anatolian Fine Arts schools
" Anatolia teacher training schools
" Foreign language schoolVocational and Technical Secondary Education
" Vocational schools for industry
" Technical schools
" Anatolia technical schools
" Anatolia Vocational schools
" Vocational schools for girls
" Technical schools for girls
" Anatolia Vocational schools for girls
" Anatolia Technical schools for girls

" Anatolia Vocational Schools for Commerce
" Anatolia Vocational Schools for Communication
" Anatolia Vocational Schools for Hotel management and Tourism
" Vocational Schools for Commerce
" Religious High Schools
" Anatolia Religious High Schools
" Multi-program high schools for the Hearing impaired
" Vocational Schools for orthopedically disabled
" Multi-program high schools
" Vocational Schools for Health
" Anatolia Vocational Schools for Health  
 HIGHER EDUCATION
" Universities
" Faculties
" Institutes
" Higher education schools
" Higher Vocational education schools
" Conservatories
" Application and research centres
HIGHER EDUCATION
" Practical Arts Colleges for Girls
" Maturation Institutes
" Technical education centres for adults
" Public education centres
- Reading-writing courses
- Vocational courses
- Social-cultural courses
" Vocational training centres
" Professional education centres
" Science and Art centres
" Guidance and research centres
" Private education
- Private courses
- Private classes
- Private motor vehicle driving courses
- Private student training centres vocational coursesRemote Education
- Open education primary schools
- Open education high schools
- Vocational and Technical Open education schools




©2002 Republic Of Turkey
Ministry Of National Education




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